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© John Grove 2000



A 19TH CENTURY
CANADIAN TIME CAPSULE


Miss Grove's Time Capsule
1843-46

Reading Between the Lines of Fiction
By John Grove
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Table of Contents
Dusting off the Time Capsule
Miss Grove's Little Textbook
Halifax Social Life 1843-46
1843-46 Snapshots
Character Quotes and Miscellany
French-English Relations
Real Names - Genealogy
Pre-1843, Canadian History next 3
I found Canadian history in public school to be extraordinarily boring. The names of explorers and the dates when they discovered a new region of Canada seemed to be the entire focus.

The real question is "Can a teacher make the subject of history interesting for all of his or her students"?

You can skip my rambling and jump ahead to Dusting off the Time Capsule next 4
Works of fiction have provided entertainment and escape into different worlds for generations.

We make movies that bring our strangest imaginations to life. Yet, we've written textbooks (generally boring to the average reader) to teach our children.

What I recommend is that we take a closer look at some of the treasures from our past and ask students to read between the lines. Most Canadian adults aren't aware of the numerous works of fiction written by early Canadians that are now becoming more available on-line through the diligent efforts of Universities and historical societies. next 5
There are also a number of non-fiction items in local libraries that a teacher could utilize to coax interest in history from the local perspective.

Important global events that took place at the same time as local 'less' important events can be highlighted by skillful 'time association', but what I believe is missing from most history lessons is the 'feel', or full understanding of what the living conditions were like - what real people: One's own ancestors thought and did in early Canada.

Personal journals and diaries that are passed down through a family lineage rarely get the exposure as historical works, yet many contain not only the dates and facts of historically significant events, but provide an insight into how the people of the time reacted as well. next 6
Many of these early journals are stored in attics or basements and haven't seen the light of day for ages.

Now that we've got the means to take an ancestor's thoughts and show them to the world on the internet, it's time they be brought out and displayed for the world to see and learn from.

Fictions that are written to entertain our generation may inadvertently provide the future with a small window into our world as well.

You can find such a time capsule hidden just below the surface of a story that was designed as an educational fiction, titled " Little Grace; or Scenes in Nova Scotia". next 7
The story was written by a Miss Grove in the 1840's to teach the young students about the earlier history of Nova Scotia. It was published by C. Mackenzie and Company in 1846.

The main character of this story is Grace Severn, an eight year old girl with a keen interest in the history of her "Native Land" - Nova Scotia.

My historical adventure (the discovery of 'Time Capsules in Fiction') began as a simple genealogical look into the life and times of the author who was one of my ancestral aunts.

There were four sisters and two brothers who were all born in England between 1812 and 1821, who then moved to Philadelphia in the early 1830's with their parents (John James Grove and Penelope (nee Smith)).

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They were schooled in the U.K. and U.S., and later moved to Halifax. None of the sisters ever married and all became teachers.

One of them was the author of this incredible treasure of Canadian history. When the book was published in 1846 the sisters were between the ages of 30 and 34 years.

My interest in early Canadian living grew with the first reading of 'Little Grace'. With each subsequent reading I discovered more about Canadian history through the eyes of a 19th century teacher.

Although Little Grace covers several centuries of Nova Scotia's history my goal was to focus on the author and the period 1843-46. next 9
The author presented us with a typical English family in such a manner that you can garner the commonly excepted political opinions of the time as well as individual views on the same topics.

She is quite outspoken against discrimination while at the same time accepting certain 'normal' behaviours that we would find to be pure signs of prejudice today.

Resentment and Conflict

'Time heals all wounds.' I think the world has proven that statement false. Injustice or ill-treatment (real or perceived) is a wound long remembered and always a source of pain to those who remember (Unfortunately, all sides seem to remember themselves as the victims).

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Our history wasn't exactly a rosy picture and should never be glossed over for the sake of our present views. It is important that we keep an open mind when viewing the way things were, no matter what our ethnic background.

This doesn't mean we condone the behaviour or attitudes of our ancestors, or that we truly appreciate at what cost this country became a nation, but we should view our history as a shared history - the good, the bad, and even the atrocities as well.

All Canadians, whether they be recent citizens, descendants of early settlers, or descendants of the first people to occupy this land should look back on the history that formed a nation as multicultural as ours with interest.

It was, or rather is - OUR history. History doesn't have to be nice - and often isn't, but it is a part of who we (all Canadians) are. next 11

As for time healing all wounds-- harboring resentment of past events seems to be the root of most conflicts in the world today. People often blame war and other violent conflicts on religious disputes because two forces are invariably from two different cultural backgrounds, and the best way to move people into violent action is to give them a purpose that they can't deny.

Leaders throughout history have rallied around their churches in their call to arms. Governments have used the religious faith of their people against them - coercing the masses by next 12
threat of "denying one's faith" or "defending one's faith". In recent years some leaders have found a different catalyst to inflame the passion of their people since the power of the church has declined in many hearts.

They focus on what makes their people different from their alleged enemies - whether it be as broad as culture or as narrow as language - it is simply another tool to rally the support of the masses.

Thus I believe it isn't religious or cultural disputes that are the true fuel to conflict; they are only the tools used to inflame passion.

It is History, and the deep rooted resentment of (the outcome of) all our past disputes. next 13
As Canadians we live in a very young country compared to most, but our short history is as full of the worst underhanded and inhumane actions as the most vile acts that have taken place in every war that mankind has been involved in.

In today's world we would call most of these vile acts - Crimes Against Humanity. This little book covers the actions of the French, Native, and English forces in incredible detail, while supplying us with an astounding picture of the social history of a young developing nation.

Some cultural biases that existed in Grace's "Native Land" over one hundred and fifty years ago still exist in Canada today. It is important to warn the reader that in 1846 the text wasn't next 14
airbrushed by today's standards of political correctness. As I alluded to earlier, the ugliness of human prejudice wasn't always obvious to the author.

Referring to the frequent exchange of Nova Scotia between France and England, the young character stated "I should not like to wake up in a morning, and not know whether I was French or English." Her brother added " or Indian", to which she responded "No, I could tell if I was Indian or not by skin."

The reader will find some hints that the 'civilized' family in this story considered themselves free of cultural bias despite the evidence of blatant class distinctions and discrimination between races.

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The author, despite her obvious English background, treated the English and French equally with disdain or praise as she saw fit for the situation.

Dusting off the Time Capsule

It was difficult to completely separate Little Grace's present day (1843-1846) from her history (1479-1766) when I was trying to remove the "time capsule" because the reactions and attitudes of the characters in 1843 to the historical events that they discussed were intermixed.

The historical events covered the period from John Cabot's voyage in the spring of 1497 to the 1776 emigration of loyalist and slave refugees from the U.S. War of Independence. next 16
As I mentioned earlier my interest was in discovering more about the author and her world. She apparently wrote the story in 'real time' completing the book in May 1846 shortly after Queen Victoria's birthday.

Indications of the real time-line noted in the book start simply as a reference to the year 1843 on Page 10, but throughout the book other dates are presented:

Page 49 - Summer 1843;
Page 90 - End of Summer vacation 1843;
Page 104 - December 1st, 1844;
Page 161 - latter part of June (1845);
Page 167 - 29th April (1846?);
and the final indication is on Page 172 - 24th May as Queen Victoria's Birthday. next 17
The book's dedication "To those children, who, like "Little Grace," are interested in the history of Nova Scotia, this Book is addressed, by their friend THE AUTHOR" was dated May, 1846.

The majority of the story occurs in 1843 and events that the fictional family participated in may have actually taken place with the author's involvement, providing her with material for the book.

On page 19 she writes:"... and even now you know people sometimes lose their way in the woods. Do you not remember the two poor little children that were lost in the woods at Dartmouth, and perished?"

Robert Harvey provided the next 18
following information on 13 Jan 2001:

" Your reference to the children lost near Dartmouth from the book is a true story which is recalled from time to time even now. It happened in 1842.

The children lost were Jane Elizabeth and Margaret Meagher ages 6 and 4. They were the children of John Meagher and his wife of Lake Loon near Dartmouth.

They were lost on 11 April and their bodies found on 17 April locked in each other's arms after a search by thousands. Their head stone may yet be seen in the Woodlawn Cemetery in Dartmouth. The incident is often referred to as the story of the Babes in the Woods". next 19
Some of the other characters living in or around Halifax in the story were not fictional as well. In particular, Miss Grove used the actual names of the Natives as well as those of local businessmen. These names are apart from the 'historically' accurate names which Little Grace learns or discusses with her family and friends.

The time-line seems to show a lack of active writing in 1845.

This gap in writing combined with the fact that the history doesn't cover the early 1800's (when one would expect this period would be prime material for a school girl in the 1840's), and with the abrupt change to a poetic finish provide the most compelling evidence that Anne Grove (rather than one of her three sisters) wrote the story.

You can read more about Anne here

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In 1845, Anne (then 32 years old) bought a building at 97 Hollis Street to relocate her school from its previous location on Albemarle (Market) street where it had been since November, 1840 as indicated in the following advertisement that was published in the "Novascotian" on November 19th, 1840 (Copied from an article by Robert P. Harvey, Head of Social Studies at Sackville High School):

"Miss Grove has taken the house lately occupied by Major Bayers in Albermarle Street (Market Street, Halifax) and has removed her school there. Miss Grove intends to take a limited number of boarders whose moral and intellectual improvement will form the objects of her constant care. Their health will be attended to and they will be required to take constant

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and regular exercise. Terms - When the pupil is provided with her own bedding and towels and spoons £35. - When these are not provided £40."

This suggests that in 1840 there was only one Miss Grove teaching in Halifax. A quick check of the 1838 census records for Halifax and area doesn't show any sign of the Grove sisters so it appears that Anne was probably the first to arrive.

It isn't evident when her sisters joined her, however five years later Anne moved her school to Hollis street.

I suggest that Anne was too busy to workon the book during that year, resulting in only six pages being written from June 1845 to April 1846. next 22
With the school in order, perhaps she made plans for the next school year and polished off the book - ignoring any additional history lessons in order to take it to the publisher prior to the start of the 1846 school year.

The historical references abruptly end at the U.S. War of Independence on page 163, only two pages after the dateline of June, (1845).

Only four pages later, the time line suddenly jumped to April 29th, (1846).

The remaining pages provide a plea for the restoration of the "Prince's Lodge" where Queen Victoria's father had lived while visiting Nova Scotia, a lesson in botany, some poetry, music, and finally an abrupt ending where next 23
'Little Grace' and a small friend drift away in a little boat:

"If you wish to see the gay boats floating on those still and beautiful waters, I advise you to walk to the North West Arm, some fine evening just before sunset, and there if you do not find "LITTLE GRACE," you will at least, have before you, one of the fairest "SCENES IN NOVA SCOTIA."

All four of the Grove sisters taught at the girls' school at some point between 1840, its relocation to 97 Hollis street in 1845, through its removal to the Grove homestead in Beaverbank in 1880, and its ultimate closure in the early 1890's. Whether 'Miss Grove' was Anne, Elizabeth, Helen, or Penelope may never be absolutely proven, but I next 24
feel the timing of the book and its rapid finish that doesn't even cover the significant historical era of 1812 points to Anne.

The following school prospectus, possibly published after 1880 when the school was located in Beaverbank was also discovered by Mr. Harvey in his "Search for Miss Grove":

"Terms Per Annum
Young ladies under twelve $60.00
Young ladies over twelve $80.00
The course of study for the younger children will comprehend Reading, Writing, Arithmetic, History, Geography, Natural Philosophy, Grammar, English Composition, and the French Language. Those over twelve will be taught Drawing and as they acquire sufficient
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proficiency in the studies named,
Botany,
Rhetoric,
Algebra and Italian.
Lessons in Music $40.00 per annum.
A limited number only of pupils will be received.
One quarter's notice is expected before the removal of a pupil.
"

Some of the subjects are surprising to today's standards - I wonder at Natural Philosophy being taught to young ladies under twelve, and for those over twelve - Rhetoric (I suppose this not only covered public speaking, but also included lessons in protocol), Botany, Algebra and Italian. The school apparently employed occasional teachers such as a "Dancing Mistress", or a "German Master".

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It's nice to see that from its inception the school taught both English and French as core subjects, recognizing even before official bilingualism (or for that matter, even before the Dominion of Canada) - the necessity to recognize both of the major European cultures that would forever define Canada's roots.

Art was taught at the school and the frontispiece "sketched by Miss Grove" also provides evidence that the author or at least one of her sisters was a capable artist.

There are a number of paintings and sketches at the Museum of Nova Scotia attributed to anonymous artists that were painted between 1840 and 1880. next 27
The collection is focused on Mi'kmaq culture and includes one painting that is strikingly identical to the frontispiece of "Little Grace".

The main characters in the story visit a native encampment near Dartmouth and address the chief, his wife and niece. One of the portraits of a young Mi'kmaq woman in the above collection has the initials "A.G." inscribed on it.

It may indeed be a giant leap to assume that the artist was Anne Grove simply because the initials match,. that she was alive in Halifax in the 1840's, and had probably visited the native encampment on a few occasions while writing her book - but it's a leap that has some chance of being more than coincidence in my opinion. next 28
A few images on the site show a portrait of the same person, one of which was titled Christina Morris, by the artist - but titled Mary Christianne Paul Morris by the Museum's site. Both names appear in the book written by Miss Grove showing she was familiar with the Mi'kmaq personalities:

On pages 51 and 52:
"Martha told the boys she would give them something from a basket she had in her hand, if they would show her the wigwam of old Paul, the chief..." "... Presently they saw an old man cutting sticks with a hatchet. This old man was dressed in a brown coat, cut in the Indian fashion, with epaulets and trimming of red cloth. The cap he wore was brown like his coat, and surrounded by a band of red cloth.  In shape, it resembled a Scotch bonnet, and his white hair streamed from "

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under it over his dusky cheeks. This venerable old man was the chief of the tribe..." "...His wife was lying sick in his wigwam, and he hoped Miss Martha could think of something that would help her. The floor of the wigwam was covered with branches from the fir trees, and on this carpet wrapped in a blanket, lay the old squaw. A man was sitting at some distance from her, and Christina Morris, her neice, was working a chair-seat with bark and porcupine quills.  Mary Paul, that was the name of the sick woman..."

Additionally, a number of the works from the Museum's collection seem to be . poor copies of even earlier artists' works. The Museum's web site often shows contempt for an artist's lack of cultural knowledge in the copies.

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Specifically with regards to the baby carrier, canoe shape, or headgear that are often drawn incorrectly. I'll stretch my above coincidence a little further - what if these anonymously drawn poor replicas were the work of students. I speculate further than can be proven and wish only to point to the possibility that there are other "Time Capsule's" from the same period that haven't been fully examined.

A Text Book for Miss Grove's School

As a teacher, Miss Grove didn't simply write a story; she also taught her readers. Apart from the obvious history lessons there are other topics presented in a manner that could only have been written to teach. next 31
Reading through some of the passages below you'll see what the general curriculum and knowledge level was for an eight to nine year old student in Halifax, 1843.

The first example is a simple math lesson when Grace needs to figure out how long it has been since Cabot sailed to Nova Scotia. Rather than simply stating that the young girl subtracted 1497 from 1843 and arrived at 346, Miss Grove described step by step the process of subtracting large numbers:

Math

"Grace ran for her slate, and when she had written down 1843, which she knew was the year in which she lived, she put 1497 under it, and then she

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said, 'seven from thirteen will leave six; ten from fourteen will leave four; and fifteen from eighteen will leave three; 346 years, mamma, since Nova Scotia was discovered by the English.

Oddly, the process isn't the same as we (North Americans) would teach our students. If we were to write the process described in the above paragraph it would read something to the affect of the following:
... borrow ten from four, replace it with three; seven from thirteen will leave six; borrow ten from the eight, replace it with seven; nine from thirteen will leave four, four from seven will leave three, and one from one will leave zero - 346 years. As you see we manipulate the 1843, where Little Grace manipulated the 1497 to arrive at the same result.

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Botany

Near the end of the book there is a lesson in botany which is quite interesting. The knowledge that this eight year old character possessed prior to the lesson is very impressive when compared to today's grade three science student's (virtually non-existent) grasp of scientific classifications.

In discussing Nova Scotia's flower - the Mayflower, Grace states she knows too little considering she knows so much about the lily:

"I can describe the lily, because I know of what class and order it is, and that it is called Lilium, and has a bulbous root."
(She's eight years old!) next 34
The characters refer to a textbook on the subject "Eaton's Botany", and Grace is then instructed to count the stamens in the Mayflower she has picked: "Grace counted ten stamens, and told her mother she thought it belonged to the tenth class, 'and it has only one pistil', added she, 'and must be in the first order'"

Further study is instructed by Grace's mother, resulting in a more in-depth view of the botanical knowledge expected of an eight year old...

"Grace said each flower had two little green cups,-and her mother told her that the calyx was double, and that she and the book had agreed perfectly in their description. 'The corolla is salver form with five partings in its spreading edge' next 35
When Grace heard her mother say that the corolla was salver form, she pulled one out of its little green cup, and looked at its shape. 'It's little throat is almost choked with soft hairs, mamma'
'Yes, that is what botanists call villose,' said her mother.
'And all the little stems are covered with moss and dead leaves from the fir trees.'
'From this latter circumstance,' said Mrs. Severn, it derives its botanical name, Epigaea repens, which means creeping upon the earth.'
"

Throughout the discussion Grace appears at ease with the botanical terms and reacts to the directions with complete understanding of what she is looking for. She knew that once she counted the stamens, she would arrive

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at the class - and after counting the pistil, that she would gain the order. Following this, she responded to her mother's description that the corolla was salver form by removing a flower from the calyx to take a closer look. Her mother apparently has no trouble using the appropriate scientific terminology with the eight year old and even explains the Latin name.

I know that today's grade three science student isn't blessed with the scientific vocabulary to maintain a botanical discussion like this, let alone to actually comprehend the classification system.

History

The major focus of this book of course is an in-depth study of Nova next 37
Scotian history. However, once again I must emphasize that a present day grade three student doesn't seem to be as familiar with History as this fictional eight year old in 1843. Apart from her obvious familiarity with Botany, Grace also shows some prior knowledge of history at the age of eight:
"I did not think, brother," said she reproachfully, "that there would be anything about Robinson Crusoe in it, nor perhaps about Captain Cook..."
"...I doubt if you know who Columbus was?"
"...Yes, indeed I do; mamma told me he was a native of Genoa; and the Queen of Spain let him take some ships from her country and he sailed across the Atlantic and discovered America."
"Yes... but he never saw North America; it was Cabot who discovered our country." next 38

Geography

It is also evident that a young student was adept at basic Geography as shown in Grace's ability to discus the many routes taken by explorers, and through demonstrating this knowledge by pointing out locations on her maps:
"Yes," said Grace, producing her map, "here it (Bristol) is in the South West of England."
..." the bay of St. Mary. Grace saw that it was on the North West of Nova Scotia."
..."here it(St. John) is," said Grace, "in New Brunswick."
..."last summer you (George)went to Lunenburg in the steamer, and you told me that LaHave was about nine miles from Lunenburg."
..."here is one part of North America called the United States." next 39
"Grace found Cape Breton, and her mother told her to look on the southern coast for Louisburg."
"All the girls in the world, Grace? Abyssinians, New-Zealanders, Tartars
---" (And in North America) "... first there are the Esquimaux and Greenlanders; then there are the Patagonians and the Araucanians; the Knistenaux, the Ojibbeways, the Assineboins."
"...the Indians of whom I am now telling you, were of the Abenaqui nation, whose chief seat was Norridgewoak, now Kennebec ..."
"...to have so many different people in it (Nova Scotia). Indians, one kind;-French,two;- English,three;-Germans,four;-Irish and Scottish six; and Jessy says, her grandfather is a welshman." next 40
"...You have omitted one..."
"...You meant the negroes, did you not, mamma?" Her knowledge of Geography is perhaps equivalent to today's grade three level with a focus on the region in which the student lives and possessing basic map reading skills.

Poetry and Music

Miss Grove taught Music and Poetry especially toward the end of the book:
"George was going to tell her, but his father called him to ride with him, and Grace went to practice her music lesson."
-Miss Susan sings a song at the picnic which was either written anonymously or by Miss Grove herself:
"God gave the little wren, a place
Within the dark green wood,
where it might sit and sing to Him
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Who fills the Solitude.
God made the modest violet
In secret places dwell,
where it might send its perfume up
To Him it pleaseth well.
The tiny bird, the lowly flower,
Rebuke our mortal care;
He, from the feeblest human heart,
Accepts the feeblest prayer.
"

Acknowledgement on "The Trailing Arbutus" (below) of authorship (Mrs. Whitman) seems to indicate that the other Poems and songs were originals written by Miss Grove.
"There's a flower that grows by the greenwood tree,
In its desolate beauty more dear to me,
Than all that bask in the noon tide beam,
Through the long, bright summer, by fount and stream.

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Like a pure hope nursed beneath sorrow's wing,
Its timid buds from the cold moss spring;
Their delicate hues like the pink sea-shell,
Or the shaded blush of the hyacinth's bell,
Their breath more sweet than the faint perfume
That breathes from the bridal orange bloom.
It is not found by the garden wall,
It wreathes no brow in the festive hall,
But dwells in the depths of the shadowy wood,
And shines like a star in the solitude.
Never did numbers its name prolong,
Ne'er hath it floated on wings of song.
Bard and minstrel have passed it by,
And left it in silence and shade to die.
But with joy to its cradle the wild bees come,
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And praise its beauty with drony hum;
And children love in the season of spring
To watch for its early blossoming.
In the dewy morn of an April day,
When the traveler lingers along the way,
When the sod is sprinkled with tender green,
where rivulets water the earth unseen,
When the floating fringe on the maple's crest
Rivals the tulips crimson vest,
And the budding leaves of the birch-tree throw
A trembling shade on the turf below,
When my flower awakes from its dreamy rest,
And yields its lips to the sweet south west,
Then, in those beautiful days of spring,
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With hearts as light as the wild bird's wing,
Flinging their tasks and their toys aside, Gay little groups through the wood-paths glide,
Peeping and peering among the trees,
As they scent its breath on the passing breeze,
Hunting about among lichens grey
And the tangled moss beside the way,
Till they catch the glance of its quiet eye,
Like light that breaks through a cloudy sky.
"
During the May-Day ceremony, the Queen is crowned to a song apparently written by Miss Grove...
"The unworthy author is before you; said her uncle John..."
"Two others bore a crown of flowers, which they placed on her head while all united singing the following verses, to the air of "God Save the Queen." next 45
where, with a mellowed light
The fresh green leaves are bright,
As emerald stone,
where the sweet May flower starts,
where the wild wood bird darts,
Queen of our willing hearts,
We place thy throne.
Ye spirits of the Spring,
Fresh from the mountains bring
Bright bud and flower;
Weave a rich diadem
Of leaf and branch and stem,
And with fair blossoms gem
Our festive bower.
Then, while the rose leaves press
The brow of loveliness,
Then be ye nigh!
Let your pale shadows pass
Quick o'er the rustling grass,
Glide gently by.
Brightly the brooklet flows,
Calmly the clouds repose,
Our queen to greet.
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The woods breathe incense still,
And every running rill
Sends out its music thrill
So soft, so sweet.
Here, where the wild winds breathe
Our blossom crown, we wreathe,
Our garland green.
Here by the crystal stream,
where the still waters gleam
In the bright golden beam
We crown our Queen.
"

English/French - Reading and Writing

Suggested reading material included:
Columbus, by Washington Irving - an abridged version for younger readers
Tales of a Grandfather, by Mrs. Markham. The book includes prints of Stirling Castle, and is a history of next 47
England. A reference to Sir William Wallace's head being cut off and put upon a spike on the top of the castle walls is made.
Masterman Ready
Pet Lamb ("Papa," said Grace, "in the 'Pet Lamb', you know --'The little brooks that seem all pastime and all play, when they are angry, roar like lions for their prey'...)
"The Rose just washed in a shower" (POEM)
"The Myrtle and Friendship" (POEM)
"Sun-Drop" (POEM)
"The Lily of the Valley" (POEM)
"Tulip" (POEM)
Woodsworth (collection of poetry?)
Eaton's Botany
Haliburton's Histories next 48
Bilingualism wasn't such a strange concept even in Grace's time - decades before the Dominion of Canada incorporated more than the French territory west of Nova Scotia:
"After breakfast, Grace always said a French lesson to her mother. This morning it was not so perfectly learned as usual..."

It would appear not to be uncommon for an eight year old to be incapable of writing as indicated by the simple question posed by Grace's brother George even though this fictional eight year old was quite capable:
"Have you learned to write yet, Grace?"

Prior to George's Christmas holiday 1844, the then nine-year old writes this letter to her brother demonstrating her abilities:

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"Halifax, December 1st, 1844 MY DEAR BROTHER, I am very glad your holidays are so near, and I am down to the year 1748 in the history of Nova-Scotia; but I am sorry the English gave up Cape Breton. Mamma is very well, and sends her love to you; and I wish you had been with us this morning when we went to the poor-house to see old Madeline. You cannot think how droll it is to see a squaw with a white night-cap on; and she had never been in a bed before, and she was afraid of falling out; and she asked my mother to send her dogs to see her.
Your affectionate sister,
Grace Severn.
Postscript.-I forgot to tell you that Madeline caught a bad cold, by sitting at the door of the chapel all day with nothing to keep her warm but her blanket for a shawl. She slept by our kitchen fire all night, but in the morning
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we thought she was going to be very ill, and she went to the poor-house in the sleigh. She did not want to leave the warm hearth, she said, 'Severn's wigwam very good for old squaw' "

She also apparently writes a letter on a 'sheet of paper with the picture of Halifax on it' to the Queen, perhaps the author's way to subtly request historical restoration on the Prince's Lodge:

"MY DEAR QUEEN VICTORIA
I heard last summer that you went to Scotland, and I hope you will soon come to Nova Scotia, which is New Scotland, and if you bring some of your treasure with you, the Prince's Lodge, where your father lived, can soon be repaired, and your ships can stay in Bedford Basin, which is very large and
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beautiful. Your Majesty need not be afraid to bring the Princess Royal, and the Prince of Wales, for the Indians do not scalp people now, and the Acadians that are in the country are very peaceable. I suppose Your Majesty and Prince Albert have read in Haliburton's History, what shocking things they used to do, but that was when the other Governors lived here- and when George the Third was King of England, a great while ago; and Lord Falkland is our Governor now, and he does not live in a fort as La Tour was obliged to do, -and if Your Majesty does not like to stay in your ship, while your carpenters are mending your father's house, I suppose you would stay there, but I hope you would let the children come to my mother's, and if you could see my pleasant room, when the sun is shining on the harbor, you would think Nova Scotia was a very pretty place. I will next 52
gather you some May flowers, and some Linnea, and I hope you will come in the summer, because it is more pleasant then. I am a little girl of eight years old, and I shall be nine on my next birth-day and it will soon be here, and I want to send you this letter, that you may know your father's house wants mending, and I think it is a shame it should all go to ruin. He was called Prince Edward when he was here, and he was a soldier, and we all love you and want to see you, but I hope you will let the little Princess come too.
I am your affectionate subject,
GRACE SEVERN
"

This only begs the question "Was it normal for young Colonial girls to write letters to Queen Victoria?"

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Challenge to future authors and historians:

"I have often thought this period in Nova Scotian history would afford good materials for a novel;-the contrast between their peaceful homes, and the sudden desolation that befell them; the heart-rending separations;-the fierce struggles. If I ever write a novel, I shall select this removal of the Acadians."

Art

And a challenge to the art students:
'Grace's mother said, she thought the scene between Argall and Biencourt would make a good picture. The Frenchmen, their English rivals, and the mediating savage who wonders why those who seem to him of the same

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nation, should be at strife.
"And the meadow, and the ships in the harbor," said Grace
"And the ruined fort," added George.
"Perhaps," said their father, Nova Scotia may hereafter have among her sons, some artist to illustrate his country's history, who may select this incident for his pencil.
"

Teacher's pep talk:

"Her mother understood this feeling of discouragement, which all students have experienced in a greater or less degree..." "Her mother promised to hear her read a chapter every morning. The little girl, perfectly happy, placed herself beside her brother, with her books in her lap." next 55
I've given a lot of praise to the apparent knowledge of this fictional 8-9 year old in the 1840's. However, even if this is an accurate representation of a typical student of Miss Grove's school, it may not be fair to say it was the norm throughout the colony.

The school was described as "an exclusive finishing school for girls of country districts", and thus this may represent the knowledge base of a student from a specific portion of Nova Scotian society.

The book probably provided for instruction to older girls as the prospectus provided earlier showed Botany was one of the subjects taught to young ladies over twelve years of age. next 56
Nonetheless, Miss Grove has provided us with a unique look into Halifax's educational system of the 1840's.

Social Life in Halifax 1843-1846

As you've now viewed some of the treasured items stored away in this little fiction you can see how well prepared the time capsule really was. Further study will show what Little Grace's home life was like.

The setting that the fictional family lived in was what appears to be a typical English home in downtown Halifax. The house was within walking distance of the Dartmouth ferry - Considering the only alternate mode of

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transportation was the horse and buggy, most of Halifax was within walking distance.

The family had hired servants that filled the roles of Nanny (or nurse), Cook, and Coachman, as well as performing other duties such as bringing coal for the fire.

The bedrooms were all on the second floor with the Nanny/nurse's room situated adjacent to the little girl's room. There was a breakfast room on the first floor where George comfortably spent some time drawing.

The family consists of only two children with a large gap in their ages. Although George's age was never revealed he travels to Windsor (Kings College) for the school year and doesn't

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appear to be chaperoned by adults at any time. There are casual references to the social relationship between this family, their servants, and others, innocently reflecting their inherent class prejudices.

Although the author appears to treat the 'civilized' world with some disdain in regards to their prejudices, some aspects of this underlying class or racial discrimination appear to have affected Miss Grove as her characters portray 'prejudicial slips' on occasion:

"The squaws thanked her in the gentle, sweet-toned voice peculiar to their people, but did not rise."
"Bring a little coal," said Grace's mother to the servant that opened the door, and at the same time, she drew her work-table nearer to the fire."

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"...she arose, and ringing the bell, ordered the sleigh to be driven to the door. Grace was going out in the sleigh. Dr. Johns had said it would do her good."
"At twelve o'clock Grace and her mother drove through the gate leading to Mrs. Wilhelm's pretty cottage. Mrs. Wilhelm and the company, the servant said, had gone down towards the North West Arm, where a sort of banquet hall had been constructed in the woods."
"At last about four o'clock in the morning, she called to her nurse who slept in the next room"
"The nurse who was very good natured, did not like Grace to feel restless and anxious, so she got out of bed, and coming into Grace's room, drew aside the curtain, and looking out, told the little girl that it was a beautiful night"
"Just then, a lady and gentleman were seen coming towards them... It was the
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father and mother of Grace." "Her nurse told her that she was not to carry the basket, that many other things were going with the party, and that Miss Martha's servant was to take them all in a wagon."
... "and the captain of the Steamer came to tell the lady that her son was waiting on the wharf, with a carriage. The lady turned to Grace's father, 'I shall not remain on the shore more than an hour, should I be asking too great a favor, if I beg to retain this little girl with me for that length of time?--she will point out her home to me, and I will leave her there in safety.'
She reached home before her mother had become anxious about her, and in time to send a large bouquet of flowers to her new friend." (A little protocol?)
..."and when Grace reappeared in the kitchen with the new garment hanging over her arm,
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it is hard to say which was most pleased--the child, or the equally simple old woman."
This refers to a used petticoat, Grace gives to a native who presented her with a small canoe as a gift.
..."the Indians were friendly to them, and willing to sell the game they killed. But though there was an abundant supply of venison, there was a great scarcity of bread. There was plenty of corn- but the only way of grinding it was by a hand mill which required hard labour, so much disliked by the Indians, that they preferred hunger to the task of grinding, though the French offered them half the meal they ground."

In this paragraph it was obviously below the French to be expected to grind their own corn -- but how could those Natives dare not do the hard

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labour expected of them?! The French were fortunate enough not to starve even though the Natives wouldn't grind their corn:
"In the spring they built a flour mill which was turned by a little river, and then they could have as much bread as they wanted without asking the Indians to help them."
"Why do we call them savages," asked Grace. "...He said the Indians were peacable and honest, but they did not, as civilized people do, build houses and towns, and have shops and manufactures."
"they
(Natives) never talk loudly, nor quarrel in the streets; they are not like the negroes;-- are the negroes civilized, papa? Her father asked her which race she thought most readily learned the ways and customs of the whites. 'I suppose the negroes,' said Grace, 'for they drive carts, and carry next 63
boxes, and live as servants in our houses; and I never saw the Indians do any work, except basket-making.'"
"Papa, I like savages better than civilized people."

"The attention of Grace was soon caught by a black woman, in a little wagon. This woman had beside her, a great basket of clothes which she was taking home to wash. On her lap she had a lobster, which she picked to pieces with her fingers, and ate without any bread."

"They overtook a little cart, drawn by an ox. A black man and woman, whose clothes were covered with patches, were with the cart..." "...Mrs. Severn knew these poor people-she had given them potatoes for seed; and now she stopped the carriage that she might

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inquire what were their prospects of a crop. Grace did not interrupt her mother while she was speaking to the black people"
"Berry nice day ma'am"
"They wear funny bonnets, and have little ox carts, and I think those that go in the Dartmouth ferry boat, are very fond of lobsters"
"This is the old short cloak, you know, that you said was to be given away; and I think the frock would fit the little Acadian; and nurse told me yesterday, when I burst the hook off the waste, that she thought I was outgrowing it. And, indeed mamma, the young Acadian is very good."
"Good enough to be rewarded with your old clothes! Very well, Grace, make yourself and your Acadian as happy as you can, but you must not be long; your papa will soon be here for breakfast and you know he will wish to see you
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here."
"Miss Martha saw that some of the baskets were still half filled with cold meat, bread and cake... perhaps the Indians in the wigwams opposite, would be glad to have what was left..."
"Our party now reached the other side of the lake, and were beginning to ascend the hill on which stood the Indian encampment. Some boys were at play here, who came towards them and began to beg for coppers"
"They appeared particularly pleased with some large round biscuits, and began to bowl them down the sloping path."
"I think you are wrong when you call them savages."
"Oh! Grace, your good opinion has been bought,-bought by a basket not worth two-pence."
"how they killed and scalped the people
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of Halifax when they went a little way into the woods?"
"I know the history says that those who live in these days, can form no idea of the horrors of a war with savages."
"The Indians came so secretly and unexpectedly, said George, that it was impossible to guard against them. They passed the forts by night; or, hid by the trees of the forest, they glided silently along paths which none but an Indian could find; and when pursued, they hid themselves in swamps and thick woods, where no white man could follow them. They attacked and killed families with such quickness and secrecy, and retreated so swiftly, that before the alarm was given, the murderers were far away out of the reach of pursuit. Sometimes they carried their victims, in order to put them to a lingering death, or to extort from their families a ransom."
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"...if you think the Indians should be called savages and barbarous, when a French man (Charnise) puts a whole garrison to death, and the English council treat a faithful old friend (Rene Leblanc) as if he were a wicked thief"
"We have certainly no reason to be proud of this act of our ancestors... but we must not forget what great provocation they had, and with what jealousy all Protestants and English were, in those times, accustomed to look on persons who spoke the French language, and were of the Romish faith."
"You forget, said her mother, in your desire to prove that Indians were not more savage than the other inhabitants of Nova Scotia, that all the French were not Charnise's"
Miss Grove seems to think that it was acceptable to generalize that all Natives were savage, but not to generalize about the next 68
'civilized' nations. "
The Indians always traveled rapidly; and when their captives, exhausted with climbing rock precipices-crossing deep and rapid brooks, and struggling through imperceptible paths in the wilderness, were unable to keep pace with their captors, they were driven forward by blows. When night came, their sufferings were not less: they could not eat the food which was given them, and they were tortured by the insects that abound in the forest"
"if the ground was covered with snow, they were obliged to use snow-shoes, to which they were not accustomed; and then awkwardness and frequent falls in the snow only excited the anger or merriment of the savages. If there was no snow, their feet became torn and bleeding.".

The above text is among my favourite next 69

selections. Many of the examples about ill treatment of prisoners in 1843 are sports at present: hiking, camping, mountain-climbing, and snow-shoeing. Imagine being forced to eat the food that these savages ate! Imagine the horror of insect bites! Imagine the humiliation of falling from your snow-shoes only to be laughed at by your captors!
"...old Mr. Douglas Scott you know who lives at the corner: I think he is one of the Scotchment who named it (Nova Scotia); he is very old, and his hair is white as snow; and when he walks he totters, and his head is bent forward, and you know what droll shoes he wears..."

European history writers often assumed that natives who strived to learn a foreign language did so because of an overwhelming awe for the next 70
intelligence of white man. The Sachem of a large Native Force, Mambertou, apparently suffered from this awe despite his own incredible feats described in the story:
"He made Pontrincourt promise to come back the next summer, and teach him those arts which made the white man superior to the Indian."
"The chief admired the intelligence of the white men, and he wanted to be like them. He became a Roman Catholic, and he and his son learned to understand and speak French. The French people had taken great pains to learn the habits and the language of the Indians, in order that they might be able to teach the savages what it was important for them to know."

The above is typical of our "civilized" world's influence on an "uncivilized" culture - providing them with next 71
information that "we" decide is important for them to know. However, rather than learning how to find one's own way in the woods from those who were superior at this task the 'civilized' folk simply resorted to 'using' guides:
"Father Beart could not go alone, for he did not know the way through the woods; there were no roads, and the country would all look alike, wild and dreadful to him. None of the other white men could help him, so he must have an Indian guide. The Indians could find their way by the sun and the stars by the moss on the trees, or by some little brook; or a crooked branch or an old stump; if they had ever seen it before, directed them, --just as you know what street you are in, by the looks of the shops and houses."
Of course, the question as to whether you can trust your 'savage' guide must have arisen... next 72
"Well, my dear children, this Indian told the poor, sick Frenchman that he thought he would die, and he said 'when the son of Mambertou returned to Port Royal, alone, the white chiefs will look at him, and will say that he has killed his white brother.' Then he asked Father Beart to give him a written paper, saying that he felt himself likely to die, and wished to clear the character of his guide, and that he had therefore signed this paper, in case any body should suspect the guide of having acted unfairly. Poor Beart was very ill, but he was still in possession of all his strength of mind. He suspected what the Indian intended to do, and answered him, 'No, I shall not give you such a paper; I see the wicked thoughts you have in your heart, and know that you want to kill me.' When the Indian heard this, he was greatly terrified; he thought that the white man could read next 73
all his thoughts, and must be a great magician"
The French did show a great deal of respect for Mambertou:
"His white friends showed him the kindest attention but medicine could not cure him
He was buried at Port Royal with the military honors due the rank of Commandant
his funeral was attended by an immense concourse of Indians, who assembled round Port Royal in such numbers, that their watchfires illuminated the woods for many successive nights."
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1843-1846 Snapshots:

The following literary snapshots of life in the 1840's provide ample material from the time capsule. Miss Grove managed to make a few words worth a thousand pictures.
Road conditions haven't changed much for winter driving:
"The christmas holidays at length arrived"... "George's first evening, however, was fully occupied in telling of the excellent sleighing on the Windsor Road, and in repeating the stories he had heard of the overturns suffered by coach, and coach passengers, between that place and Horton." next 75
You are what you wear:
"Did you not know," said he, that those women we so often see in Halifax, with woollen socks and knitted mittens for sale, are Acadians?"
"No, Indeed" said Grace "I did not know they were Acadians, I thought they were French women, and that was the reason of their wearing white handkerchiefs on their heads, instead of bonnets."

(English = bonnet, French = white handkerchief)
"As they passed the next wigwam, a blanket was hastily dropped over the aperture used as a door. Presently they saw an old man cutting sticks with a hatchet. This old man was dressed in a brown coat, cut in the Indian fashion, with epaulets and trimming of red cloth. The cap he wore was brown like his next 76
coat, and surrounded by a band of red cloth. In shape, it resembled a Scotch bonnet, and his white hair streamed from under it over his dusky cheeks. This venerable old man was the chief of the tribe."
..."mamma-she is down in the kitchen, and the cook has given her some warm coffee, and some bread and butter;-she is very pretty, and so good, mamma. She let me feel her petticoat, and her striped mantle; and she has a basket full of knitted socks, and she says she will sell them for eight-pence a pair, because her mother is sick, and her grandfather has the rheumatism,-and her father is dead, and she is the eldest of seven children, -and their house was burned down three years ago, and they have had no feather beds since, and for a long time they had nothing but a heap of straw to sleep on; and she speaks good English, mamma--not at all like
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the old man you bought gooseberries from last summer, --no summer before last; and mamma, she walked 22 miles yesterday, and then walked about town to sell socks here, and at night she was so tired she could not sleep"
... and she has no sheep of her own, but she is obliged to buy all the wool she spins and knits"
"Chezetcook women, she called them Acadian."
"she wore a striped petticoat, and a white handkerchief over her head"
"and her moccasins began to wear out"
...
(Ah! The white handkerchief - must be French! So perhaps we can add striped petticoat or mantle to the French wardrobe.)

"In the streets they met groups of persons, whom they knew to be strangers;--ladies in traveling dresses,

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and green veils; and gentlemen with moustaches and caps... On the wharf, men were at work, carrying bags of coal into the Steamer, which lay, breathing very loud, Grace said, as if resting itself she stepped on the planks laid down to form a bridge between the side of the vessel and the wharf.
Inside the Steamer
Grace saw a long room, with tables, and seats all round the tables; her father told her this was the saloon. She thought the walls were of beautifully carved oak, and could scarcely credit her father's assertion that they were made of stamped leather...
She next saw the pantry. A man was standing at an open drawer nearly filled with the lumps of white sugar, which he was breaking into it...
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The lady took her down some stairs, and showed her a little room with sofas all around it; she told her this was the ladies' cabin.. It had a pretty little grate in it, a table in the middle and some looking glasses on the walls. Grace asked why they had so many closets, and begged the lady to show her a state room...
She was very much disappointed to learn that the only state rooms were those closets...
she was equally so
(surprised) at the size of the fires, dangerously large as they looked to her, the engine-men all black and heated, were busy throwing on more coal"...

Ladies in traveling dresses and green veils? Well, they're not English, French, or Native - must be strangers! The above also gives us a rather nice

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look inside a typical '1840' steamship.
Here come some more strangers:
"... she wanted them to look at a fine ship at anchor in the harbor. A large boat was rowing away from this ship. Some ladies and gentlemen were in it, and the sailors who were rowing wore large collars turned over their blue jackets, and they had long ribbons flying from the side of their round hats. A great many sunfish were floating about in the water. They looked like pink, or dark-red flowers."

Weather and scenery:

"The rain was falling in large splashing drops. Grace looked down into the street, which seemed a great river of muddy water. The pigeons were not there as usual, there was not even a next 81
dog to be seen. No living thing was in sight except a milk woman, with a blanket shawl over her head and some large tin cans in her hand"
(Nor rain, nor sleet, nor snow... oh, it's a milk woman - not a postman).

"The first of May was not sufficiently fine to induce Grace to renew her request for a day in the woods. The clouds were gray and heavy;-the harbor looked very cold and dark, and a north east wind was blowing clouds of dust against the windows"...

"Grace had never been to Dartmouth in the winter, and as she passed a little wooden aqueduct which supplied a mill with water, she stopped to look at the great icicles, as large as herself, which descended from each side of it." next 82
"It was a beautiful afternoon. The blue lake, half gilded by the declining sun--half shadowed by the wood--the harbor glittering in the distance--the white sails gliding over it in various directions--the gentle wind stirring the branches of the trees--the brown hills of Dartmouth, and the untroubled summer sky"

"This place, erected at so great an expense-so formidable for its strength, and so celebrated for the two sieges it sustained, is now an inconsiderable fishing place, not otherwise distinguished from other harbors in its neighbourhood, than by the name it has obtained in history."

"The tents on George's Island were white as snow drifts, and the hills of Dartmouth seemed holding their heads up in the fresh morning air..." next 83
"If you could have your wish, mamma, what would it be?"
"Her mother thought for a moment and said she should like a country house."

..."she must wait till eleven before crossing the harbor, so she went for her books and sat down to learn the lessons for the next day."
..."Besides you must take some money," said her mother; you know you cannot go to Dartmouth without paying the men in the steamboat for taking you across the harbor."

"Miss Susan, with several children, now arrived, just as the bell of the steam boat began to ring. This bell rang to tell the people who were going to the boat, that it was time to go on board. Grace gave her seven-pence half-penny to Miss Martha, and then all the other next 84
little girls did the same, and Miss Martha gave the money to a man who stood at the gate of the steam boat wharf."
"When the little party were in the street, Grace and Jessy were so much occupied with each other, as they walked along, that they nearly fell over a great Newfoundland dog, that was lying by the steps of a house door.

This street led to the steam boat wharf. On the side walk sat several squaws, making baskets. One of them had a child, about three years old, sitting by her side; and the papoose of another was tightly bandaged up in a little case made of bark.

..."and presently they had passed through the busy market, and had reached the wharf. The boat was in sight, but it had not come up to the next 85
landing; so the children asked if they might stand and watch a cobbler, who was sitting in the street mending a pair of large, coarse shoes."
"As she looked down the green slope, her eyes appeared to pass over the blue lake that lay at the foot of the hill, and to rest for a moment on a squaw who was drawing up the bank the canoe in which she had paddled herself over the lake.

Then she looked at an Indian encampment, which was on the rocky and barren hill opposite. When Miss Martha had considered these objects for a few minutes, she spoke to John, who stood near her.

John said, 'Yes, ma'am,' and went down the grassy hill, and turned to the right towards a fence which separated the hill on which they were, from a road next 86
passing over a bridge, and leading to the Indian encampment."

..."when an old squaw, who was a great favourite of Grace, made her appearance, tired and travel-worn. Grace took her into the kitchen, where Madeline and her two dogs...
seated themselves on the floor. - Old Squaw very tired, said she-- walk long way, no have much to eat all to-day...
The cook gave her a bowl of warm coffee and a plate of meat, but the old woman, hungry as she was, would not touch them until she had succeeded in extracting from her bundle, and presenting to Grace, a little canoe she had made for her"

"It was made of birch bark, fastened together by stitches of the sinews of the deer. In it were seated a miniature next 87
Indian and a Squaw, who had a papoose in its wooden case on her back. The squaw held a paddle in her hand, and the Indian was equipped for the chase."

A nice look at the inside of a wigwam with the 'typical' notion of civilized and savage:
"The floor of this wigwam was covered with branches from the fir-tree, and on this carpet, wrapped in a blanket, . lay the old squaw...
her niece was working a chair-seat with bark and porcupine quills...

The children wondered how anybody could bear to lie in the middle of the wigwam without a pillow, and they wondered still more to see the fire on the ground, without either grate or chimney." next 88
When a ship comes to town everybody is excited:
..."the troops are going to land at two-o'clock-it will strike two in a few minutes; if you want to see them come along quickly"
"Grace thought there were almost as many people as on Sunday, when the congregations were going from Church"

"Which way will they go?"
"They will go up by Belcher's corner, round the Province House, to the south barrack"

"The crowd increases- A knot of old gentlemen is before them; young officers, who have been in the town for more than a year, hurry to and fro, as if they, too, were just landing; they are glad of any thing to enliven the quiet little town. Men of grave profession, next 89
and graver years, stand and talk with each other; there are two carriages with ladies in them"
'I see the tops of soldiers' caps over the wall at the bottom of that narrow lane.'
There was a sudden movement in the crowd
... first were heard drums, then the other instruments sounded full and clear.
They were playing 'Auld Lang Syne.' Then they saw a throng of men and boys, and above their heads the brilliant red plumes of the band.

Some officers on horseback came last, and they were soon out of sight. The music was good--the day was pleasant, and the red plumes were gay, yet Grace was a little disappointed; she thought the crowd spoiled the . effect of the soldiery.

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It seemed to her that all those men and boys must have seen a disembarkation of troops many times before, as they were all older and taller than she was, and she wished they had not stood between her and the show she had come out to see."

"The broad harbor showed only the North America with its red pipe, the Corsair with its crescent flying, and the red and white sails of the fishing vessels."

"But what is that gun? Is it the Steamer, from Boston?
Grace saw it from the window. 'There it comes with its tall red chimney, and its smoke. How fast it comes and how long it is; you great Leviathan, as uncle John says--we are not afraid of you, though you do fire a gun, and though your next 91
decks are covered with people;--we know you are not an enemy."
"If it were an enemy," said George, "our citadel is stronger"

Postal Service Snapshots:

..."she saw a small wooden box standing on the table. Her father told her to look at the box, she did so, and was surprised to see, 'Miss Grace Severn, care of George Severn, Esqr.' painted in large letters on the lid"
"To-day is not Christmas day, my dear father"...
"That box arrived by the English Steamer, this morning"...
"she ran down stairs for the little hammer, used on such occasions. Grace's father lifted up one side of the lid with the hammer, and the little girl saw a letter lying on the top of some
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smooth brown paper"
"Before George went away, he had ruled several sheets of paper for his sister, and on one of them she wrote"...
"I would have sent down my soldiers to the mail-boat every time it came in"

Family Matters:

Since Miss Grove didn't have a video camera to record the family relationships for our time capsule she once again provided us with vivid literary images:
..."her father and mother were conversing, and she knew she must not interrupt them."
"Oh! George, said Grace in the evening, when their father and mother were engaged with some visitors, 'my mother has been telling me something"
...
(As opposed to 'our' mother) next 93
"But that is not all the letter, is it Sir?" spoken to her father Grace told him (George) she wanted to have a long talk with her mother, and advised him to go out of doors for a walk or ride. We will not follow him in his gallop along Tower road...

Little sister 'advised' older brother to go out for a ride, and he readily galloped off. The matter-of-fact nature of Miss Grove's writing frequently seems to present a feeling that this would be a normal relationship.

"And now, good morning, Grace-I have no more time for you this morning; Nova Scotia past, must yield to Nova Scotia present." next 94
"At this moment Grace caught her mother's eye. It was time for her to go to bed. She was very sorry; but, accustomed to cheerful obedience, she went at once."

..."when Mrs. Severn had come down stairs, and was preparing to make the tea for breakfast, Grace rushed into the room, and, without even remembering that she had not yet seen her mother, and given her the usual morning salutation"...

"Miss Martha looked at her watch, saw that it was half past four, and she gave each of the party a cake and an apple, and told them to be as happy as they could"... next 95
"Here comes the urn; we are going to have breakfast."
Breakfast for Grace consisted of milk and raspberries, while for her older brother it was broiled salmon and potatoes.

..."what were the resources of this country, and he mentioned potatoes and cod-fish first of all."

"Grace, who had claimed her place at her father's side, and securing one hand for herself and one for Jessy, led the way towards the little bridge."
"The others followed in pairs, and the three ladies walked last."

"Miss Martha got up from her seat, and taking Grace by the hand, she walked away from the boat, through the next 96
open gates and up the hill. The others followed in pairs, and Miss Susan came last, leading little Miss Mooney by the hand."

Snapshots of a Picnic:

"Grace brought the basket and placed it on the table by her mother. She saw that it contained a cold tongue. Her mother put into it a loaf of bread, some cakes, and a jar of strawberry jam."
"She was dressed in a clean white frock
... coming down the stairs with her straw bonnet in her hand.

It is impossible to tell which of the children expressed most delight when they saw the place selected by Miss Martha.

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'How lovely and cool it is under the trees' cried Sophy.
'Here is a nice flat stone for a seat,' said Jane, 'and here' said Mary, 'is a pretty house, all shaded by trees.' There was room for four of the girls in the house Mary had found

John had brought all the baskets to Miss Martha and her sister, and had procured some water from a cottage that stood in a field not far off. When the baskets were opened, one was found to contain rice pudding, and a sponge cake. Another was filled with slices of ham and little prints of butter; in a third were some bottles of milk and large pieces of ice, which were covered up to prevent them from melting."

"I once heard of a pic-nic, for which every thing had been provided - except one. There were boiled ham in next 98
abundance, each with its paper frill, cold fowls, cheese, salads, fruit, tongue, wines; all these were there, but what do you think had been for-gotten? No one had thought to bring any bread."
(Oh! The Horror!)

Toys, Fun and Games - 1843

Where does a little girl in 1843 store her toys?
..."running back to her own room, she found a basket filled with doll's clothes"
What sort of games did children play outdoors?
Who can play at thread the needle? And in a minute, they were all dancing round and round her, until they were all wrapped about her, as the thread is on next 99
its reel. While they were unwinding themselves with the same ceremony they had used in the first process, "Thread the needle, dan, dan, lift up the gates as wide as you can"

"Before breakfast she amused herself with watching some boys who were coasting down the hill, and as no one was in the room for her to talk to, she talked to herself. 'There comes a little boy on a little sled. I don't think his sled is as large as a wooden shovel that John uses to clear away the snow from the stable door. Here comes two boys on one sled, and one rides backwards-I should not like that; and here comes three in a row-how fast they go; and that one along the other street, with a great dog to draw it; and a great tub of water is on the sled, and the boy is walking at the side.'"

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"After dinner, George went to his own room, and returning with a fishing line in his hand, he sat down by the window to mend it" "I shall not be at home again till Christmas, and then" said he, looking admiringly at his completed work, "then I shall want skates instead of fishing tackle."

"When George had been home a week, he went with a party of boys to skate on a lake at Dartmouth"
"There sat Miss Martha, and her nieces Isabel and Jessy, and it was soon revealed that they, too, were going to look at the skaters on the lakes."
"...and the parties of skaters were flying over it in all directions. Grace looked about for George, and as she did not see him, she felt sure he was with some boys whom she saw playing at hurley on the ice."

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(Hurley was an Irish field sport - perhaps, Hurley-on-ice was the very early beginning of Hockey).

"The little girls enjoyed riding on this sled until George was tired of drawing them, when they seated themselves on a larger sled, with Mrs. Severn and Miss Martha. This sled was drawn by several young men in front, and pushed along by others"
"...and she and Jessy called the skaters their Reindeer. Bye and Bye they stopped to let the Reindeer rest, one of whom, Grace's uncle John, indulged her in two or three fine slides, and then the ladies, who did not dare to remain longer in the keen air, unless in motion, went back to town."

"Those children that had been plaiting grass, or twining wreaths of next 102
Linnea Borealis round the crowns of their bonnets..."
"The bonnets which had been tied to the trees, were now tied under the owners' chins"

Sense of humour!

I have to admit that the author had managed to confuse me with this one until I figured out what had actually taken place:
"Just then, a lady and gentleman were seen coming towards them through the shrubs and trees. It was the father and mother of Grace. When they had come up, Grace's father asked the children if they had found any nuts on such bushes that grew there. They laughed, and some of them said they had too much sense to look for nuts on such bushes as those. The gentleman replied, those next 103
who were very sensible need not follow him, but if any little girls felt inclined to make an extraordinary discovery, he would show them some trees that bore very sweet fruit.
Sweet fruit, indeed! Sugar plums, so large and real as to convince the most sensible, that it is wiser to use our powers of observation, than to say, we have too much sense for this or that."

For those who like me, didn't catch the obvious at first, read: the nuts (sugar plum candy) were planted on the trees by Grace's parents before they approached the Picnic. It is wiser to use our powers of observation!

"...but she thought ammunition was the same as ginger beer and soda biscuits. George, she said, called those things his ammunition one day when he was going out to fish" next 104
My father's sense of humour frequently consists of a literal slant to spoken phrases:
"Would you make me a cup of tea?", is always followed by a magical wave of his hands to turn the person who asked into a cup of tea. This particular humourous trait might be genetic, as the author seems to be afflicted:
"Oh, George," said Grace, "do you think it will stop raining?"
"Yes, certainly," said George, "I have no idea it will rain forever."

"See, mamma," said Grace, running up stairs, "see what dear old Madeline has given me. I am so glad I saved the money Uncle John gave me, to buy her a petticoat, because now I can send it to the Steamer Lady. You know she told me she never saw Indians in a canoe and---"

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"And are you going to send her a squaw's petticoat, because she never saw Indians in a canoe," asked her father?
"Oh no! papa;..."

Complaining that she has a lot more history to learn before her brother returns home, Grace says:

"I want to know about the Acadians after Nova Scotia was finally given up to the English. You know, mamma, there are a hundred and fifty years, before George comes home."
"Ah!" said her father, "are George's holidays so far off as that?"
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Character Quotes and Miscellaneous Observations:
"I heard my grandmother say the other day, she thought we should be more healthy, if we lived more like the Indians."
Of particular interest in this regard, was the Lifespan recorded for the Native named Mambertou (also christened as Henry):
When he was more than a hundred years old, he was very ill..."

Prior to 1613, Mambertou built an impressive encampment (see the description under Some History learned by Grace). He took a large force south to battle other tribes near Cape Cod, and returned victorious. I don't know if there is any way to validate that he had

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lived to an age in excess of a hundred years but the author seems to take the longetivity for granted. The story doesn't indicate in what year, Mambertou died - only that he was buried at Port Royal with great honours.

"The steamboat lady called me a Haligonian..."
"...if people cared enough about Nova Scotia to fight for it, I should think they would care enough to keep it when they had it.
...will you tell me why they did not care more about it, and send plenty of soldiers to defend it, and men and women to live here, and build towns?
...I suppose they were very ignorant in those days, said her brother, and their mother said she thought the idea prevailed that Nova Scotia contained

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no mines, and this supposition deterred settlers from coming to it. The gold and silver which had been brought to Europe, from South America and Mexico, were so attractive to the people, that they considered a country without these metals as scarcely deserving attention. At that time the fisheries and fur trade were considered the only resources of Nova Scotia."

"Now Massachusetts has given it up," said Grace; "every body wants it, and every body gives it up..."

"Most of them fled into the woods, but one respectable man surrendered, and asked protection for himself and his family."

"I will show you the former residence of Her Majesty's Father, next 109
the Duke of Kent."

As the French in Monty Python's Search for the Holy Grail taunt the English shamelessly:

"Pontrincourt once sailed to Cape Cod, in search of a place further south than Port Royal, at which to settle. He put into a harbor there, and one day some Indians stole a hatchet from his men. Two guns were fired at them, and they fled but, the next day, a shower of arrows was discharged among Pontrincourt's people, and two of them were killed. These two men were buried at the foot of a cross which he had put up when he landed, and while the funeral service was performed, the Indians were dancing and yelling in mockery. When the French embarked, the Indians took down the cross, dug up next 110
the bodies, and stripped them of their grave clothes, which they carried off in triumph."

French - English Relations:

(I think)..."it very natural these people, who had preserved the language and religion of France, should still be unwilling to give up their allegiance to the king of that country."
"I can see more excuse for their conduct than those could who lived then, and whose friends had suffered death or captivity through their influence."

This is perhaps the most dangerous territory to venture into. Our present day political climate meets 1840's perceptions that the English and French

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disagreements were resolved long before 1843. Little did they know! Throughout the historical discussions, Canada is referred to as French - until 1759.

However, in Miss Grove's world, the French and the English appear to have found a peaceful coexistence (at least in her mind). She fully understands the difficult choices given to early Acadians as well as the complications caused by the two European countries acting independently.

"Both nations, you see, claimed a right to the Country, and the English King gave a grant to one man, and the French King gave a grant to another. This, by and bye, made a great deal of trouble." next 112
Thank goodness we no longer have the French and English Kings in Europe making the political decisions for Canadian citizens.

"...they (Acadians) are described as a very quiet and happy people. They made farms in the lowlands, building dikes, or high mounds of earth to keep out the water of the sea and the rivers. The fields made in this manner, produced abundance of grain, and they had also large meadows in which were great herds of cattle and flocks of sheep. They never quarrelled with each other, and every family had horses and poultry, and whatever they needed. When a young man wished to marry, the others built a house for him, and supplied him with every thing necessary for a year. There was very little poverty or distress among them."

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ETHNIC CLEANSING

In today's geopolitics ethnic cleansing is something that only the 'evil' side of humanity would even consider. We look back on the horrors of the holocaust, Stalinism, and in recent times - the Serb/Muslim conflicts in the Former Yugoslavia. Today's news broadcasts seem to be rather similar to the depictions of scorched earth behaviour of English soldiers against the French Acadians in the 1750's.

Although this is outside of the 1843 time capsule, I've included it in order to show how Miss Grove perceived the situation.

"...but in other places the French had been victorious; and the Novascotians, next 114
hearing of their friends' defeat, and still smarting from the wounds inflicted on themselves, resolved to be rid of those who were only neutral in the absence of temptation to hostility."

Five vessels carried the men away, followed by numerous vessels removing women and children and dispersing them throughout the southern states - not caring whether families were reunited. After the dispersal, 200-300 houses were burned, along with barns and mills:

"...and the English soldiers were left alone, they were surprised at the extent of the destruction they had caused. The smoke was still rising from the burning houses,-the cattle lowing as if expecting the notice of their masters, and the fertile country that lay next 115
around them was without inhabitants. They had done their work-there was no longer an enemy for them to subdue. The smoke-the ruins-the lowing cattle-the dogs howling over the scene of desolation, and even the deserted fields, seemed to ask if all this ruin had not been the act of haste and revenge." Some captured natives wept over a priest's body which had been

perforated with balls, his head scalped, his skull broken with the blows of hatchets, his mouth and eyes filled with mud, the bones of his legs fractured, and his limbs dreadfully mangled."
"...I know all about it' said George, it was bad business, but the Acadians had the French to thank for it."

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A rather lengthy story of the dispersal of one family was given. A Frenchman named Rene Leblanc was said to have had 20 children and 150 grandchildren when the Acadians were dispersed.
This particular individual held a high office with the Acadians, but was loyal to the English.
While he was on business for the English, the Natives had captured him and sent him to a French fort where he was held prisoner for four years. They also pillaged his home.

After managing to acquire his release from imprisonment, he was seized along with the 417 other men in Minas by the English and sent away. Leblanc was only accompanied by his wife and his two youngest children and was sent to New York. He had ventured

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to Philadelphia later where he found three other children. The remaining 15 children and 150 grandchildren were never found. While discussing the dispersal of 7000 Acadians, a side discussion ensues:
"...the impolitic expulsion of the Jews by Ferdinand..." "...so we compare small things with great."
"...it was not a good kind of peace when one was liable to be scalped."

It didn't seem to matter to Little Grace whether the French or English controlled the country:

"I should not like to wake up in a morning, and not know whether I was French or English." next 118

The Real People from Halifax 1843

The following names mentioned in the story were true personalities that managed to be stored in Little Grace's time capsule:
Mrs. Whitman (author of "Trailing Arbutus" poem)
Mrs. Markham (author of "Tales of a Grandfather)
Washington Irving (author of an abridged Columbus history)
Haliburton -- Main source of historical information referenced, resided at "Clifton" near the boys school in Windsor.
Paul (old Mi'kmaq chief on reservation near Dartmouth - 1843: The Museum of Nova Scotia Web Pages on Mi'kmaq portraits show several portraits of a chief named Paul, whose wife's name next 119
was Mary Cristianne Paul.) Mary Paul (chief's wife - 1843: Several portraits of Mary Paul are on the Web Page as well)
Christina Morris (Mary Paul's niece - 1843. The Museum's web page has one portrait labelled as Mary Christianne Paul Morris by the Museum, but Christina Morris by the author)
Shaffer- baker (bread)
Bent- baker(crackers)
Dr. Fretum- professor

Two little children that were lost in the woods at Dartmouth, and perished.

Grace remembers the event - which if real, probably took place in the early 1840's and would add to the argument that the book was written in 'real time'. next 120
Robert Harvey responded to this comment with the following information:

Your reference to the children lost near Dartmouth from the book is a true story which is recalled from time to time even now. It happened in 1842.  The children lost were Jane Elizabeth and Margaret Meagher ages 6 and 4.  They were the children of John Meagher and his wife of Lake Loon near Dartmouth.  They were lost on 11 April and their bodies found on 17 April locked in each other's arms after a search by thousands.  Their head stone may yet be seen in the Woodlawn Cemetery in Dartmouth.  The incident is often referred to as the story of the Babes in the Woods

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Characters:

These should all be purely ficticious, however one never knows with Miss Grove's tendancy to use real events and real names

Grace Severn- 8 year old girl, main character
George Severn- her older brother
George Severn Esquire - Grace's father
Mrs. Severn - Grace's mother
Anne Neville - Lady from the Steamer (English)
Uncle John (Grace's uncle)
John (Miss Martha's servant)
Nurse (not named)
Miss Martha (chaperone at Pic-nic/ Jessy calls her aunt)
Miss Susan (Martha's sister)
Jessy, Isabel, Ellen, Sophy - Grace's next 122
friends(Jessy and Grace were the youngest of all the picnickers)
Miss Martha's servant John
Little Miss Mooney (one of the 12 girls at the picnic)
Jane (another picnicker)

Historical People and Places mentioned in text:

People: Baron Castine (commanded Natives)
Biencourt (French/ Son of Pontrincourt)
Claude de La Tour (French protestant/married English Queen's maid of honor)
Captain Argall
Charles Etienne La Tour (Claude's son/French)
Charnise'
Colonel Church next 123
Colonel Monckton
Colonel Winslow
Daubre //priest accompanied DeMonts
DeMonts (French)
Duke D'Anville - Ill-fated French Admiral- died on arrival at Nova Scotia.
Du Vivier (French Commander took Canseau in 1744, failed to take Annapolis)
Earl of Halifax
Father Beart // Jesuit Priest
General Wolfe
Governor Cornwallis
Governor Lawrence (Nova Scotia) Governor Shirley (Massachusetts - offered 100 pound reward for scalps of Native males/50 pound for women and children)
John & Sebastian Cabot (English)
King George II (England)
King James First (England)
King Henry 7th (England) next 124
King Henry (France)
King Louis XIII (France)
LaCorne
Lord Loudon (Governor of Massachusetts)
Madame de Goucherville // sent more priests to convert the savages
Major Lawrence
Mambertou - (Native / christened Henry)'The Sachem'
Monsieur Saussaye captained Madame de Goucherville's priests to Acadia
Pontrincourt (French)
Queen Anne (England)
Queen Elizabeth (England)
Queen Victoria (England)
Sir William Alexander
Sir Humphry Gilbert (English)
Sir John Gilbert (brother to Humphry/ English)
Sir Oliver Cromwell //Protector of England//
Sir Thomas Temple next 125
Places:
Acadia
Bay of Fundy
Beau Sejour
Bermuda
Boston
Bristol (departure point of Cabot)
Cape Breton
Cape Cod
Cape Sable
Chiegnecto /now Cumberland
Dartmouth
Fort Lawrence
Gaspereaux River
George's Island
Granville Street, Halifax (Location of a shop in 1843)
Halifax
Isle of Sable (convicts abandoned)
LaHave
Louisburg
Lunenburg
Massachusetts next 126

Massaguash river
Mount Desert
Minas /now Horton
New England
Norridgewoak - Kennebec
Port Royal /now Annapolis Royal in honour of Queen Anne
St. Croix
St. John
St. Mary's Bay
St. Saviour
Virginia (all of N.A. between 34 & 45 North latitude)
Windsor (//Clifton - Haliburton (author of Haliburton's history) resided there//location of George's school in 1843) next 127
Some History learned by Grace:
I've now shown the contents of the "Time Capsule" less the author's main subject - The History of Nova Scotia. All of the historical information in the book was drawn from " Haliburton's History of Nova Scotia", which was obviously the teacher's favourite textbook: "She ought to make you read Haliburton's History of Nova Scotia, Every Nova Scotian ought to read it."

Chronological History 'Taught' in Little Grace or Scenes in Nova Scotia.
1497 - John & Sebastian Cabot sailed from Bristol with 300 men
1582 (86 years later) - Sir Humphrey Gilbert took possession of Newfoundland in the Queen Elizabeth's name. On his return trip to England, his ship sank an all aboard perished.

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1602 (20 years later)- Sir Humphrey's brother - Sir John Gilbert came to America, but had died in the severe winter; Everyone that had come with him returned to England.
Between 1602-1613 A Marquis came from France with a ship full of convicts, landed on the Isle of Sable, where the convicts were deposited while the Marquis went to explore the coast of Nova Scotia. He encountered a storm and returned to France, stranding the convicts. Grace compares the convicts survival to the story of Robinson Crusoe. Seven years after being left on the island, twelve of the 40 convicts are returned to France.
Between 1609-1611 - DeMonts' expedition under the authority of the King of France anchored in the Bay of St. Mary with Protestants and Catholics on board Immediate reaction of Grace "Were they English and Irish?" next 129
As it turned out they were all French, but this immediate connection to English/Irish problems seems rather familiar even 150 years later: The catholic priest named Daubre, while searching for his misplaced sword, gets lost in the woods, and a protestant member of the party is accused of murdering him. Sixteen days later the priest finds his way out of the woods. Demonts and Pontrincourt return to France before winter to get added supplies.
In May of the following year, Pontrincourt & Demonts return to Nova Scotia. They establish the custom of "President for a day" - each of the 15 'gentlemen' took turns providing for the party, residing over meetings and organizing hunting and fishing.
By the next spring they had built a flour mill, turned by a little river. next 130
Demonts returns to France. While he's away 400 fighting Natives amass near Port Royal under the 'sachem' Mambertou. The Natives built an impressive camp; equally impressive is the detail of Miss Grove's description:
"Their camp was laid out with great regularity, and enclosed with a high wicker fence, made of tall slender trees, sharpened at the ends and driven into the ground, and then interwoven with others, until the whole became quite a strong wall... within the wall, in the center of the enclosure was a large tent where the chiefs met to talk about their plans, and the cabins of each district, situated a little apart from the rest, occupied the remainder of the space." "You must think of a river all covered with canoes, a great many (400) strong Indians with their weapons, and the chiefs, looking very proud and fierce, and Mambertou at the next 131
head of the whole. So they sailed across the Bay of Fundy, and joined some other Indians collected on the river St. John." "Yes, it was the greatest Indian army they had ever seen, and you may suppose the French felt both wonder and pleasure as they stood on the ramparts at Port Royal, and saw all the canoes pass by, one after the other. They were going to the South, to fight against other Indians who lived near Cape Cod."
Mambertou returned from his battle (victorious) before Pontrincourt's departure.
The following spring, French settlers returned. Demonts remained in France, and Pontrincourt became Governor. The King of France told Pontrincourt to receive two missionaries for the conversion of the savages. He didn't like the Jesuit priests, one of which next 132
was Father Beart. Prior to 1613: Once again Pontrincourt travels to France, leaving his son Biencourt in charge of the colony. Biencourt makes life difficult for the two priests, and they write to France complaining of the treatment they were receiving at Port Royal. A Madame de Goucherville, concerned about the necessity to convert the savages sends two more priests along with a Monsieur Saussaye to establish a new colony apart from Port Royal. M. Saussaye took Father Beart, his (unnamed) colleague, and the two new (unnamed) priests away from Port Royal and sail to LaHave. They chose "Mount Desert" for their settlement, erected a cross and called the place St. Saviour. In the story, George says
"I saw an island called Mount Desert near the village of LaHave; perhaps that was the very spot; but there are no next 133
houses there now; at least I only saw trees." There were 25 emigrants, and 35 sailors, travelling with M. Saussaye. They had cleared some ground and put up some buildings, but were attacked by the English.
1613 - "Captain Argall came with a number of English vessels, to fish on the coast of Acadia. He heard that some white people were living at Mount Desert and from the description he received of them, he thought they must be Frenchmen. France and England were not at war at this time, but Argall resolved to attack these French settlers, and perish them for trespassing on the limits of Virginia." "The people were busy at work in different places, not suspecting that an enemy was near, when Argall sailed into their harbor. He soon took possession of two vessels that lay at anchor, and then landed his men to next 134
attack the fort. One of the priests was killed, and the other Frenchmen, who saw that the English were too strong for them, fled to the woods. While they were away, Argall found the commission, given to Saussaye by the King of France, and concealed it." Without the commission, Saussaye would have been regarded as a pirate, who had taken land to which he had no right.
"As England and France were at peace, Argall preferred to consider these poor French people as pirates"
"The next day, Saussaye came out of the woods and surrendered himself. Argall asked him by what authority he had dared to form a settlement on land belonging to the English. Saussaye said he had a commission from the King of France, which he would show to him. He looked every where, among his papers, but of course, was unable to find it."
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"He (Argall) told Saussaye that it was plain he was a pirate, and ordered the place to be pillaged... he took all their property--every thing they had in their houses--money and clothes, and made the people prisoners. He gave them a small vessel, and told them they might go back to France, but the vessel was not large enough to take them all; then he said those, who were willing to work, might go with him to Jamestown, in Virginia. On their arrival at Jamestown, the French were put in prison, and condemned to be executed as pirates."
However, once Captain Argall realized what was to happen from his concealing the commission, he confessed his guilt to the Governor of Virginia.
" By reading this commission, the Virginian Governor found out that there was another French settlement in Acadia, and he immediately determined next 136
to send some vessels to drive them out of the country. The command of this expedition was given to Argall."
Father Beart was quite pleased at the opportunity to get back at Biencourt in Port Royal, so he aided the English commander.
After 1613: The fort at Port Royal was abandoned when the English arrived.
They sailed up the river Laquille and surveyed the fields, barns, and mills of the colony - but left them untouched. The English returned to the fort and destroyed it. When Biencourt returned, he found the fort destroyed and requested an interview with the English commander. They met in a meadow with only a few of their followers. Biencourt petitioned the English to allow them to remain at Port Royal and to give up Father Beart-- in return the French would grant the English the mines they had found, as well as a share in the fur next 137
trade. As Argall had no authority to make such a deal, his response was that
he had been sent to drive him out, and he threatened him as an enemy if he would ever find him there again.
Their dispute may not have been resolved if not for an unlikely mediator: It was an Indian who approached, and in broken French, tried to make peace between them.

The Native was successful in his efforts. "The English went away; some of the French went to Canada; some went further into the country and lived with the savages; and some were carried to England and got back to France..."

When King James the First was King of England, Sir William Alexander told next 138
him, if the English did not settle the country to the East of New England, the French would take possession of it. "As this gentleman seemed to take interest in the country, the king gave it to him under the name of Nova Scotia."

About 1623: Sir Alexander sent someone (unnamed) to take possession of Port Royal about ten years after Argall's invasion. They attacked some French vessels as well, and among these vessels was a French Protestant named Claude de La Tour who was going to take possession of some land on the river St. John, which had been granted him by the French Government.

"When La Tour stayed in England, he married a maid of honor to the Queen, and agreed to settle in Nova Scotia with Scotch people. He told the English, his son had command of a fort in the next 139
service of the French, but he had no doubt that he would immediately give it up to him. so two ships were given him, and he sailed over the ocean, and came to the fort at Cape Sable where his son was."

After explaining the benefits bestowed upon him by the English to his son he was disappointed to hear that his son would not submit the fort to him.

"When young La Tour heard his father propose that he should become a traitor, and surrender the fort which had been given him to guard, he was very angry indeed; he told his father that he was incapable of treason, and that he would defend his fort with his life, rather than give it up to the English." next 140
Senior La Tour attacked the fort without success, losing many of his own men in the effort. He felt too ashamed to return to England without acquiring the fort he had said would be easily handed over to him, so he sent the surviving men back to England without him. Young La Tour refused to allow his father access to the fort.
"A year later, Claude de La Tour joined some Scotch emigrants who were at Port Royal, and soon after that, Sir William Alexander gave him his title to the whole of Nova Scotia."
Alexander was discouraged by the harsh winter that had killed so many people, and the expense attending the colony.
Following a war between King Charles the First of England and the King of France, not only did he return Canada to the French after his armies had taken it, but also gave them Nova Scotia. next 141
No further mention is made of Claude de La Tour; however, his son - Charles Etienne LaTour received large grants of land from the French.

Another Frenchman, named Charnise' was awarded the lands farther to the west in what is now Maine. Quarrels were quite vigorous between the two Frenchmen, and Charnise' had written to the King of France representing LaTour as a troublesome man.

King Louis XIII gave Charnise' permission to arrest LaTour and to send him to France. Charnise' approached the English in Boston to assist him, but they didn't follow through on their promise to aid his effort.

During this time, Madame LaTour was in England on business. Planning to next 142
return to her home on the River St. John, she hired a vessel that unfortunately took her first to the St. Lawrence where the captain stayed at length to trade with the Natives, then he went to Boston where he left her on shore. Eventually, she found her way back to the fort. Charnise' had heard that she was in the fort - and her husband was away, so he decided to attack. To his surprise, she defended the fort so well that Charnise's vessel was seriously damaged, 20 men were killed, and many others wounded. He had no choice but to retreat from the attack.
His ire was up, and when he heard that Boston had dealt with the La Tours he put sailors that he had taken from a vessel belonging to Massachusetts, on an island, took away their clothes and left them as prisoners for six days.
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Oddly, Bostonians didn't join with LaTour to oppose Charnise' - instead, they sent Charnise' presents to appease his anger and remained at peace with him. Eventually, Charnise' learned that Madame de LaTour was again at the St. John fort with a small garrison. With so few men to fight for her, he was sure to take the fort. To his surprise the defense was so well managed that after three days of fighting he was forced to retreat to a safe distance.

A Swiss man in the fort was bribed to show Charnise's men how to get into the fort. With Charnise's men ascending the wall, Madame LaTour went boldly to fight with them.

Charnise' felt a second defeat against this woman was likely, and he couldn't bear such disgrace that he next 144
called for her surrender on the promise that he'd spare the lives of the brave men who had assisted her defense.

When he entered the fort and found such a small group of men, he was furious that he had signed such a treaty. He then ordered all but one man to be hung, on the condition that the one hang his fellow men. He put a halter around Madame LaTour's neck and forced her to watch the hanging.

She apparently died of grief shortly after this incident. LaTour was poor as a result of this conquest, and doubted he'd ever regain his possessions. Some compassionate Bostonians provided him with a vessel with which he could trade with the Natives. next 145
He was not very grateful for this kindness, if it is true, as some say, that he put the English, who were in charge of the vessel, on shore, in an uninhabited part of the coast."

Lucky for these Englishmen, after 15 days they met with some Natives who provided them with a boat and pilot. LaTour went to Hudson's Bay to trade with the Natives until he heard of the death of Charnise'. He returned to Nova Scotia and married Charnise's widow.

"when Oliver Cromwell, who was then Protector of England, sent out a force, to which LaTour and the others were equally obliged to submit."

The title Protector of England was declared by Cromwell in 1653. Despite

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earlier opposition to his father against England, LaTour was now content with English rule over Nova Scotia since France had not treated him so well.
" He went to England, was well received by Cromwell, and reinstated in his Nova Scotia possessions..."

After 1653: Expecting more changes in the instability of the new world, LaTour sold his lands to Sir Thomas Temple. As Governor of Nova Scotia, Temple spent a lot of money fortifying several places, but as often was done with this country - the King of England gave it to the French.

"Cromwell was dead now, and Charles the second was King of England." next 147
Temple tried to convince England that the country of Acadia was given to the French, but his lands were in Nova Scotia. His arguments to keep a portion of his possessions failed.

Peace existed in Nova Scotia for about 20 years, when in 1689 the English in Boston sent forces against Nova Scotia, destroying the forts and taking many of the inhabitants prisoner.

Without the forts to defend them, the Acadians were harassed by pirates who came ashore in the neighbourhood of Port Royal. The pirates killed cattle, hanged some of the people, and set fire to a dwelling house, burning the whole family inside. next 148
The English considered Nova Scotia conquered, and annexed it to Massachusetts, but the French were still in possession of it. The French Government continued to send ships with supplies of ammunition for the Natives. The English were unsuccessful in stopping the French vessels from transporting "power and ball" to the Natives.

Between 1689 and 1696:
"Colonel Church with 500 men were sent to Cumberland."

Several people surrendered, but when the English asked them to aid in hunting out the Indians and Frenchman still hiding they refused to comply. In retaliation of the refusal, the English
"...burned their houses, destroyed their cattle, robbed them of every thing, and even burned their church." next 149
Boston sent Church out with more forces to take the fort on the St. John river, but he was unable to succeed.

In 1696, peace comes once again between the English and French, and once again the English give up the land to the French.
"The peace existed rather in name than in reality, on this side of the Atlantic... The French appear to have done all they could to encroach on the territory of the English settlers, and to prevent them from fishing. They even invited the pirates who infested those seas, to come to LaHave, and assist them in committing depredations on the trade of Massachusetts. Much of the money and merchandise which was obtained in this dishonest manner, was given to the Indians to encourage them in undertaking hostilities against the

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people of New England."

Between 1696-1707: Colonel Church, with 550 men, was sent to retaliate against French settlements. He succeeded in devastating Chiegnecto, Minas (now Horton), and several other places. However, no word is given on an attack against the pirates at La Have, probably due to the fact that the English wanted to harass the French rather than directly fight them.

On the 17th May, 1707, an English Force arrived at Port Royal that was substantial enough to ensure the conquest of Nova Scotia. Under the command of Baron Castine, a Frenchman that had married a Native woman, the Natives were successful in ousting this large force. In 1710, nine years into the reign of Queen Anne, the next 151
English were able to force the French into surrender. Finally, the French began to realize the importance of keeping Nova Scotia, and decided it was important to retake it.

However, the Governor of Canada could spare no troops to attempt the recovery of Nova Scotia from the English, so he appointed Baron Castine to the chief command in Nova Scotia and urged him to strengthen the loyalty of the Acadians as much as possible.

The priests were also instructed to zealously retain the affections of the Natives. Several attempts were made to recover Port Royal, but none were successful by the time peace was concluded between France and England, and Nova Scotia was for ever given up to the English. next 152
1713 - Louisburg, Cape Breton invited the Acadians and Natives to emigrate from Nova Scotia after the English had taken Port Royal, and renamed it in honour of Queen Anne - Annapolis Royal.

Many Natives accepted the invitation, but the Acadians didn't wish to leave their farms and submitted to the English government - eventually, taking the oath of fidelity to King George with the understanding that they would never be asked to fight against their countrymen. They were allowed to keep their religion, and weren't compelled to pay rent or taxes. As the French had taken great pains to secure the Natives as allies, and taught them to despise the English, they were able to continue hostilities.

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1713+: The English 'capital' fishing establishment at Canseau was completely destroyed and plundered.

At another time 1713+, five people were scalped near Canseau.
"A year or two later (1714+), again surprising that place, they put nine of the inhabitants to death in a very cruel manner. Twenty prisoners were carried to Merliguish, now Lunenburg, whom they meant to sacrifice to those of their friends who had fallen in the engagement."

The Natives had already commenced a sacrificial ceremony when an English ship arrived to negotiate the release of the prisoners. A young Baron Castine, now the chief of the Natives, had eventually accepted the ransom offered by the English. These Natives were of next 154
the Abenaqui nation, whose chief seat was Norridgewoak, now Kennebec, where Castine resided. A missionary named Father Ralle lived in Kennebec with the natives for forty years, and was greatly respected by them. The English suspected Ralle and Castine as the instigators of hostilities perpetrated by the Natives.

12 Aug 1724 - 208 men from Massachusetts attack Norridgewoak, slaughtering the inhabitants, plundering the church, destroying buildings, and pillaging the encampment.

Father Ralle wasn't intimidated by the English and marched toward them to protect his 'flock' with his life. The English responded by immediately firing a shower of bullets at him and the next 155
seven Natives that had run out to protect him from attack. The captured Natives wept over the father's body which had been "perforated with balls, his head scalped, his skull broken with the blows of hatchets, his mouth and eyes filled with mud, the bones of his legs fractured, and his limbs dreadfully mangled."

1744 - WAR between France and England declared. The French in Cape Breton knew about the declaration of war before the English in Nova Scotia and were able to capture the English fort at Canseau with the aid of Natives.

At the same time 300 Natives led by a French Priest took up arms against Annapolis. The priest attempted to trick the Governor into surrender on threat of reinforcements from Louisburg - to next 156
no avail. These Natives departed the scene, but shortly afterwards the French troops that had taken Canseau moved on Annapolis. With the arrival of these forces, the Native force returned to assist the French against the fort.

The French Commander, DuVivier attempted in vain to take the fort for four weeks before English reinforcements, consisting of four companies of soldiers from Massachusetts arrived. Du Vivier offered a large reward to every Native that stormed the ramparts, however they didn't respond to this prodding - and the battle ended with the French sailing away.

Not confident that the French wouldn't try again, the Fort's women and children were sent to Boston. next 157
(1744-48): The government of Massachusetts, namely Governor Shirley, offered a reward of 100 pounds for scalping or capturing a Native, and 50 pounds for their women or children -scalped or captured.

The Governor raised 4000 men, under the command of General Pepperal to take the French fort at Louisburg, commanded by Duchambon.

Additionally, England sent Commodore Warren from the "West India Station" with a small fleet to assist in the attack on Louisburg.

The siege lasted 49 days, resulting in the surrender of Duchambon, Cape Breton, and the Island of St. John's (now called Prince Edward Island). next 158
(1744-48): France responded by sending a large Fleet to take Louisburg, Annapolis, and Boston.

However, the stormy voyage was ill-fated and over a thousand men died crossing the Atlantic from fever. On arrival at Chebucto Harbor(Halifax), the Admiral - Duke D'Anville, died.

The second in command was delirious with the fever and thought himself a prisoner, which resulted in his suicide by sword.

The remaining men landed and camped by the inner harbour(Bedford Basin), but even more died there from illness than at sea. Matters were worsened by Micmacs who visited the camp for supplies and ammunition, spreading the infection to the point of next 159
destroying a third of their tribe. The surviving French men returned to France demoralized.

1744-48: France made yet another attempt at sending 30 vessels to recover Cape Breton, but they were defeated at sea.

1748 When peace was declared, Cape Breton was returned to the French.

June 8th, 1749 English Colony established at Chebucto Harbor (Halifax) - More than 3000 men with their families, under the Governorship of Cornwallis.

Finally, they named the Colony in honour of the Earl of Halifax who had

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taken great interest in the welfare of the colony. he (Cornwallis) appointed several gentlemen to assist him in government.

The settlers cleared away the woods as quickly as possible, built a large wooden house for the governor, and warehouses for their stores and provisions; and laid out the ground into streets. Doors and window frames were procured from Boston, and they worked so well, that by the time winter came, they had put up a sufficient number of rough houses and huts to shelter five thousand people from the rigor of the weather.

During the winter (1749), the settlers finished the insides of the houses, cut timber for firewood, and explored the countryside. The Acadians next 161
at Pesiquid (now Windsor), sent the new colony some cattle and sheep, along with 50 men to assist in building a road between Pesiquid and Halifax. Fort Massey was built to keep the colony safe from Indians.

As the colony grew, the French government decided to lay claim to Nova Scotia once again, despite the treaty they had signed when England had taken Nova Scotia from them. The French sent word to the Acadians and Indians to harass the English as much as possible.

The town of Halifax was often attacked in the night, and its inhabitants didn't venture far at night in fear of being shot, scalped, or taken prisoner. The Indian attackers were often led by a Frenchman, next 162
and prisoners were sold to Louisburg for arms and ammunition. Louisburg pretended that they had purchased the prisoners in compassion, saving them from sure death - but would not release them to the English unless a large ransom was paid.

You know the English were Protestants, and the Acadians were Roman Catholics. When the English took Port Royal, they told the Acadians they might sell their goods, and go away; or, if they chose to remain and be good subjects of the King of England, they should be allowed to enjoy their own religion, and have their own priests; and Judge Haliburton seems to think it was by these priests, that the Acadians were incited to revolt against the English.

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In response to these brutalities, Governor Cornwallis decreed that all the French inhabitants had to take the oath of allegiance as British subjects, and that the King of England would allow no man to hold land that would not take up arms and fight for him in time of war.

He informed them, that had they left Nova Scotia following the signing of the Treaty of Utrecht, they could have sold their lands, but at this time they were not permitted to sell their property and leave the province.

The Deputies of the Acadian settlements returned to their towns without making a decision toward swearing allegiance. next 164
Some Natives came from the borders of the St. John River and attacked Minas (now Lower Horton). Cornwallis had established a fort at Minas and Pesiquid (Windsor), and had posted soldiers to each.

The Natives had killed 18 soldiers at Minas, and besieged the fort for one month. Four men were killed and scalped at Dartmouth, and they made an attempt to murder the crews of two English vessels in the Harbour, resulting in more than half of the crews being killed or wounded.

Cornwallis was angered by the extent of violence, and declared that all French emissaries that took up arms, or supplied arms against the English should be put to death. next 165
A company of Rangers from New England (trained in fighting Natives), along with some companies of local volunteers pursued the Natives, and relieved the attacks on Halifax for a while.

Next, a price of 10 guineas was offered by Governor Cornwallis of Massachusetts for every Native Scalp. This method of confirming the deaths of Natives convinced the Governor that the settlement was once again safe from attack.

1750 - Cornwallis heard that the Commander-in-Chief of Canada sent two vessels to Bay Verte with 600 men, and that many Natives were collecting at the same place. next 166
He ordered the construction of a wooden breastwork round the town of Halifax for its defense.

The French controlled the narrow isthmus between Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, allowing the Natives to stage their attacks from the continent against the peninsula, and to retreat safely. The French constructed a fort at Bay Verte on the grounds that it belonged to the government of Canada.

Acadians from Chiegnecto joined the effort, and the French Commander, LaCorne found himself in command of 1500 men.
Spring, 1750 - Cornwallis sent Major Lawrence with a few men to Chiegnecto. Major Lawrence discovered the need for more men and returned to Halifax, where he gathered close to 1000 men. next 167

On returning to the isthmus, the Natives and French tried to prevent his landing. He had departed the bay of Halifax, entering the Atlantic, sailing around Cape Sable, up the Bay of Fundy, and into the Cumberland Basin. His concerted attack against the enemy on shore forced them to retreat across the Massaguash (River). LaCorne had named his fort Beau Sejour. The English built a fort on the opposite bank and called theirs Fort Lawrence.

1751 - Despite the existence of Fort Lawrence, many Natives infiltrated Nova Scotia to successfully surprise the town of Dartmouth, where they killed and scalped a great number of people, and carried some others off. Cornwallis returned to England, and the English government made a complaint at the French court - to no avail, because the French and English

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were technically at Peace.

When George II was King of England, and Mr. Hopson was Governor of Nova Scotia, more than 1000 Germans landed at a place called Merliguesh, and they were the founders of the town of Lunenburg. The Germans were also harassed by the Natives and lost many lives in the struggles.

1755 - A large body of troops under the command of Colonel Winslow set sail from Boston to drive the French from the isthmus. They anchored about 5 miles from Fort Lawrence, were joined with English soldiers under the command of Colonel Monckton that had transited by land.
They marched together toward the French Fort of Beau Sejour. The French, rebel Acadians, and Natives awaited them at the Massaguash. next 169
After four days, the fort was taken. The English changed the name of the fort to Fort Cumberland, and sent the French to Louisburg, while the Acadians were pardoned.

The next day the English attacked another French fort that was built on a river that runs into Bay Verte. It had been the chief magazine for supplying the Acadians and Natives, and had been occupied by 1500 Acadians.

The English continued their offensive by sailing up the river St. John to attack another fort there, however it was abandoned and destroyed, prior to their arrival. The occupants had burst the canon and left little to be gained by the English. next 170
The successful offensive secured the peace of the province. All the French in the province were ordered to be disarmed, and their boats taken from them.

Despite this measure, the English colonists still didn't trust the Acadians and abused them frequently. The captain of soldiers at Pesiquid (Windsor) told the inhabitants that they must supply his men with wood for fuel on threat of burning their homes if they refused. He also demanded they provide timber for a fort he was repairing on threat of death for refusal.

Many Acadians saw the injustice between them and English colonists, and decided to go to Cape Breton or Canada. next 171
Harvest time 1755?: The English were not satisfied that the French wouldn't arise against them again, and decided that the Acadians should all be sent away.

"A proclamation was issued to those who lived in what is now called King's County(Minas), commanding all the men to assemble at an appointed place, on pain of forfeiting their property."
"As many as 418 men assembled in the church at Grand Pre, and when they were all shut in, Colonel Winslow, whose duty it was to act on this occasion, told them that he had received orders to inform them that all their lands, and houses, and cattle, were forfeited to the crown; and that they themselves were to be removed from the province."

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"When he had finished his speech, he told them that they were now the King's prisoners, and must remain under the direction of his troops."

Due to French success in other colonies at usurping the English, the Nova Scotians followed through with the dispersal of the Acadian population. Five vessels arrived at the Gaspereaux River, and all the men were sent away.

Other vessels arrived and took the women and children, often to completely different destinations: 1000 landed in Massachusetts, some sent to Pennsylvania, and some farther south.

In Nova Scotia 200-300 houses were burned down, along with many barns and mills. The Acadians, originally from Minas and dispersed to next 173
the Province of Pennsylvania petitioned the King of England that they had been loyal to the colony and had in fact warned the English frequently of imminent attack.

The Acadians at Cumberland, who were indeed involved in the harassment of the English feared capture if they appeared as summoned, so deserted their homes and fled into the woods to either encamp with the Natives or escape to Canada.

Many turned themselves in after hunger and fatigue overcame them - These were sent away as the other Acadians from Minas. 250 homes were burned, and many of those who were hiding in the woods witnessed the destruction of their homes, furniture, and stores of flax and grain. They next 174
hadn't put up any resistence until the soldiers were to set fire to their church. The surprise attack resulted in 29 soldiers being killed. A total of 7000 Acadians were shipped out from Minas and Cumberland when all was done.

On invitation from the Governor of Nova Scotia, hundreds of farmers from New England, and 200 from Northern Ireland settled on the lands of the banished Acadians.

During this time, the French in Canada were preoccupied with their successful battles against the English on the frontiers of that province. Lord Loudon, Governor of Massachusetts, sent for Governor Lawrence of Nova Scotia, and other English officers to hold a council in Boston to respond to the English defeats in Canada. next 175
The council decided the best strategy was to take Louisburg in Cape Breton. They chose Halifax as the staging point for the fleet. 11000 soldiers gathered in Halifax to await the move on Louisburg, which was protected by as many Frenchmen. They set out, but a terrible storm shattered the English fleet and deferred the attack till the following year.

1758 - The second capture of Louisburg, all of Cape Breton, and Prince Edward Island. Several scalps of Englishmen were found in the house of the Governor of Prince Edward Island. The fortifications at Lousiburg were destroyed and the canon was moved to Halifax.

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1759 - 'Brave' General Wolfe attacked and took Quebec, and although he was killed at the moment of victory, the conquest of the whole country soon followed. Some Acadians built vessels and returned to Clare, N.S.

1776 - U.S. War of Independence, 20,000 loyalists settled in Nova Scotia, many brought slaves with them that were 'freed' in Nova Scotia. Additionally, a large number of slaves escaped from the colonies that revolted, and settled in Nova Scotia.

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© John Grove 2000 178